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Intelligent Traffic Light and Density Control using IR Sensors and Microcontroller

Nowadays congestion in traffic is a serious issue. The traffic congestion can also be caused by large Red light delays, etc. The delay of respective light is hard coded in the traffic light and it is not dependent on traffic. Therefore for simulating and optimizing traffic control to better accommodate this increasing demand is arises.

In this paper we studied the optimization of traffic light controller in a City using microcontroller. Thus I propose multiple traffic light control and monitoring system. The system tries to reduce possibilities of traffic jams, caused by traffic lights, to an extent. The system is based on microcontroller.

The microcontroller used in the system is 89V51RD2 which is MCS-51 family based. The system contains IR transmitter and IR receiver which are mounted on the either sides of roads respectively. The IR system gets activated whenever any vehicle passes on road between IR transmitter and IR receiver.

Microcontroller controls the IR system and counts number of vehicles passing on road. Microcontroller also store vehicles count in its memory. Based on different vehicles count, the microcontroller takes decision and updates the traffic light delays as a result. The traffic light is situated at a certain distance from the IR system. Thus based on vehicle count, microcontroller defines different ranges for traffic light delays and updates those accordingly.

The system records vehicle count in its memory at user predefined recording interval on real time basis. This recorded vehicle count data can be used in future to analyze traffic condition at respective traffic lights connected to the system.

For appropriate analysis, the recorded data can be downloaded to the computer through communication between microcontroller and the computer. Administrator sitting on computer can command system (microcontroller) to download recorded data, update light delays, erase memory, etc.

Thus administrator on a central station computer can access traffic conditions on any approachable traffic lights and nearby roads to reduce traffic congestions to an extent. In future this system can be used to inform people about different places traffic condition.
Source: IJATER
Author: Promila Sinhmar

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Development of a Traffic Light Control System using PLC

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