Drought is the most severe disaster compared to other disasters in human civilization and their impacts are serious which can cause hungur, thrist, food shortages, loss of livestock directly effects the human life.
The main objective of this project is to develop an early warning system (EWS) for drought indices by using wireless sensor networks (WSNs) which is the only way forward for an on-site monitoring and validation of locally defined drought indices.
The designed wireless sensor network (WSN) consisting of a sensor unit, a master unit and a sensor power management unit (PMU). The sensor unit measures the moisture of the soil and transmitt the measured data through ZigBee module to the master unit. A real time clock (RTC) is also used in the sensor unit which records the information of second, minute, hour, day, month of day and year about when or what time the measurement taken.
The master unit consisting of a SD-card and Bluetooth module. SD-card is used to store measured data from other sensor units and it is possible to take out the reading of measured data from the master unit by accessing the SD-card via Bluetooth inside the master unit to a PC or a smartphone mobile.
To manage the power in the sensor unit and to make sensor alive for several years, the power management unit (PMU) manages the power level between two energy storage buffers (i.e., a supercapacitor and a Li+ ion battery) for a sensor node.
Source: Linköping University
Author: Ahmed, Zubair